Strike Fighters 2 Expansion Pack 1 Campaign Background

1956 Operation Kadesh

On 29 Oct 1956, the IDF launches "Operation Kadesh" to re-open the Tiran Straits blockaded by Egypt and to destroy the Fedayeen terrorist training camps in Gaza.

The operation is part of a larger British and French plan against Egypt. Egyptian President Nasser has nationalized the Suez Canal in July, threatening the British economic interests in the region. In order to keep the canal open, the British government plans on military intervention against Egypt. They have formed a secret alliance with France and Israel, and the Israeli attack will be used as an "excuse" for Britain and France to intervene by force.

The IDF/Air Force with 100 combat aircraft must destroy the Egyptian Air Force with 150 aircraft. As part of the deal for joining the secret alliance, three French squadrons are also based in Israel to protect from Egyptian jet bombers.

Historical Epilogue

After 3 days of intense and bitter fighting in the Sinai front, the operation ended quickly when the Anglo-French forces initiated their part of the plan, the "Operation Musketeer".

Having issued an ultimatum on 30 October, Anglo-French forces began their attack with bombing of Cairo on the night of 31 October. Nasser made decision to save his air force for the long fight against Israel, and ordered them to withdraw and not contest the Allied air assault. He also ordered his army to retreat from Sinai front to defend Cairo.

The full-scale invasion by Anglo-French forces, with paratroopers and amphibious landing, began on 5 November. And Nasser responded by sinking 40 ships in the canal, completely blocking the canal until 1957.

A cease-fire was called for in the U.N., and Britain and France initially veto the resolution. Other pressures were applied to end the fighting, including financial pressure from the U.S. and oil embargo by Saudi Arabia. Faced with world-wide political and economic pressure, Britain announced cease-fire on 6 November, only a day after the landing and before the Allied forces could capture Suez.

The U.N. Assembly resolution 1001 established the first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) to maintain the cease-fire, and the modern concept of "Peacekeeping" force was born.

The strategic objective of Anglo-French operation - the overthrow of Nasser's government - was a total failure. Nasser's position was greatly strengthened after "defeating" the combined Anglo-French-Israel alliance, and Egypt would become the leader of the emerging pan-Arab world.

Instead, it was the British government that fell, Prime Minister Eden would resign amidst the oil crisis resulting from the conflict - two-third of Britain's entire oil supply depended on the now blocked Suez Canal, and the shortage had caused British currency to plummet and threatened widespread economic collapse. Britain had to agree to unconditional withdrawal from Egypt in exchange for American aid to save its economy. This conflict marked the end of the British status as a superpower.

Following the Egyptian retreat, the IDF had captured the entire Sinai peninsula in a swift, sweeping operation, proving the value of mobile warfare. Rapidly moving armored forces supported by tactical air force would be the blue-print for future IDF operations...